It is possible to search for a specific protein or cell or tissue with the immunohistochemistry technique. This technique consists of two different stages. In the first stage, the sample is fixed and after the tissue is prepared, antibody-related procedures continue. The second stage consists of the interpretation and analysis parts.
It is possible to apply immunohistochemical reactions applied in research or pathology laboratories in different situations. The most important forms of application can be listed as follows:
Histogenetic diagnosis of tumor cells
To determine the subtypes of the tumor such as lymphoma
Characterization of malignant tumor
Investigation of symptoms for treatment in some diseases
Differentiate benign and malignant tumors
To understand the structures and materials secreted by cells.
Immunohistochemistry, which provides low cost and high profit for therapeutic surgical methods, has been proven to be a complementary diagnostic method with a high rate.
There are several points that are important for immunohistochemistry. First of all, bringing the sample to the laboratory, which is a critical point in the application of the method, and the application of antibodies after fixation should be carefully followed. Because fresh samples exposed to the fixation process for a long time lose their antigen feature. This finding emerged when a piece of breast cancer tissue stored for 12 weeks lost its antigen feature. However, the same is not the case for tissue pieces embedded in paraffin.
How is Immunohistochemistry Used?
In the immunohistochemical method, when the tissue is processed, it is usually covered with paraffin at a high temperature of over 60 degrees. Another important step is the preparation of slides. Paraffin is sliced with certain thicknesses and placed on prepared slides. Pieces due to their thickness may cause a part of the tissue not to be visualized. For this reason, extreme caution must be exercised.
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